Aerial view of famous White Tower of Thessaloniki at sunset, Greece (Credit: Photo 117216770 © Vasilis Ververidis |

Thessaloniki: The crossroads of great civilizations

The port city is the south gate to Southeastern Europe and a longtime melting pot of cultures



Dubbed “The Bride of the Thermaic Gulf”, Thessaloniki, is ancient home to kings and philosophers, a crossroads of trade routes, a gateway between two continents, a geopolitical keystone, a place marked by multiculturalism and blessed with natural beauty. The only European city to boast an urban population for an uninterrupted 2,500 years, Thessaloniki witnesses a seamless blend of ancient and modern.

The regional unit stretches from the Thermaic Gulf in the southwest to the Strymonic Gulf in the east and is built on fertile grounds resting beside the Rivers of Axios, Gallikos and Loudias, as well as the lakes Koroneia and Volvi. Its privileged geographic location had profound influence on the course of its history and identity.


Regional unit’s capital: Thessaloniki Regional unit’s area: 3,683 km2 Regional unit’s population (2021): 1,091,424 Density: 300/km2  Time Zone: UTC+2 Climate: Hot Mediterranean summers and cool to mild winters in low-lying areas and plains. Winter weather is very common in areas 500m above sea level and into the mountains.


The Thessaloniki regional unit is subdivided into 14 municipalities:




Area: 19.307 km2 Population (2011): 324,766 Density: 17,000/km2 Website:


Founded in 315 BC by King Cassander of Macedonia, who named it after his wife, Thessaloniki, the city through its long and omnipresent history has been many things: Imperial capital, commercial and cultural crossroads, strategic military base, East-West gateway. In fact, Thessaloniki is honorarily called co-capital, for its historical and administrative importance. In 168 BC the Kingdom of Macedonia fell under Roman control. The city became an important trade center and enjoyed a period of prosperity with its economic expansion continuing all through the Byzantine Times, as Constantine the Great made Thessaloniki Byzantium’s second city. In 1430 the city fell to the Ottomans.

During the Ottoman rule, the city’s population of Muslims and Jews grew with some 30,000 Jews settling in 1492 after being expelled from Spain. Thessaloniki was liberated by the Greek Army from the Turks on October 26th, 1912, during the outbreak of the First Balkan War. That day, it was the feast of the city’s patron saint, Saint Demetrius. In 1923, a mass influx of refugees to the city follows the Greek defeats in Asia Minor, The city’s Muslim inhabitants leave Thessaloniki. In the Second World War, bombing destroyed many parts of the city.

During the German occupation which lasted till 1944, almost the entire Jewish population of the city perished.  After the war, Thessaloniki was rebuilt with large-scale development of new infrastructure and industry throughout the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. Today, Thessaloniki, is a 23-centuries old cosmopolitan city, a commercial, business and transportation hub and an increasingly attractive destination. In five words: is many cities in one.


Palia Paralia (Old Waterfront): Running along Nikis Avenue from the Port to the White Tower, it is ideal for a stroll.

White Tower: Located on the seaside promenade, the White Tower, once a prison and place of execution, built in the 15th century by the Ottoman Turks, is the city’s most emblematic landmark and the most photographed tourist site. 

Roman Agora: The ancient Roman-era forum of the city is located at the upper side of Aristotelous Square. The large two-terraced Roman forum is featuring two-storey stoas, two Roman baths, and a small theater,which was also used for gladiatorial games.

Aristotelous Square: One of Thessaloniki’s most recognizable areas, which was designed by Ernest Hébrard, the popular square named after Aristotelis (the Ancient Greek philosopher and mentor of Alexander the Great) is overlooking the Thermaic Gulf, and majestic Mt. Olympus when the weather is clear. 

Ladadika neighbourhood: Located near the Port of Thessaloniki, for centuries Ladadika was one of the most important market places of the city. Its name came about from the many olive oil shops of the area. The former warehouses have been converted into cafes, restaurants and bars.

Ano Poli: Right by the Byzantine Walls, Ano Poli (Upper Town), the heritage listed district north of Thessaloniki’s city centre, is actually the Old Town of Thessaloniki. Enjoy cobblestone alleys and the Tower of Trigonio, Thessaloniki’s premier viewpoint.

Nea Paralia (New Waterfront): A 3.5km promenade along the sea, stretching from Makedonia Palace to the Concert Hall. On your way you will admire the equestrian statue of Alexander the Great by Vangelis Moustakas and the sculpture “Umbrellas” by George Zongolopoulos.

Port: Thessaloniki is one of the few cities in the world whose port is a part of its urban fabric, a prime destination for culture. The MOMus Photography Museum, the Thessaloniki Cinema Museum and the MOMus Experimental Center for the Arts are all located there.

OTE Tower: One of the tallest structures in Greece (76m), the futuristic Tower built within the grounds of the Thessaloniki International Fair, has a slowly rotating cafe/bar on the fourth floor where you can enjoy a panoramic view of the city.

Arch of Galerius (Kamara): The early 4th-century AD monument was built to commemorate the Roman emperor Galerius’s campaigns against the Persians. The original structure featured three arches; however, only two full arches and part of the third survive to this day. Not far from Kamara, at Navarinou Square, is the massive imperial palace complex which Galerius, commissioned when he made Thessaloniki the capital of his portion of the Roman Empire.


Thessaloniki might be Greece’s second city, but it’s widely considered its culinary capital.

Bougatsa: A breakfast pastry, filled with custard, wrapped with phyllo and dusted with confectionery sugar and cinnamon, although there are savory variations with cheese, minced meat or spinach.

Koulouri: A very popular snack, the traditional koulouri is a sesame springled bagel, the locals grab from vendors scattered around Tsimiski and Mitropoleos.

Frappé coffee: Frappé was invented in the Thessaloniki International Fair in 1957 and is a stereotypical Thessalonian coffee drink which has spread throughout the country to become a hallmark of the Greek coffee culture.

Trigona “triangles”: For desert lovers, this cone of multiple sheets of baked fyllo filled with rich custard is a must.

Tsoureki: Traditional festive braided brioche loaf available in most bakeries and pastry shops.


The main shopping streets are Tsimiski, Ermou, Egnatia, Mitropoleos lined with boutiques with exclusive local brands and representatives of many of the major international brands.

Modiano Market – or the “Central Food Market of Thessaloniki” is one of the city’s most characteristic landmarks. Originally designed by Eli Modiano- son of banker Saul Modiano- in 1925, it has relaunched after an impressive makeover earlier this year. Featuring 117 stores and food stalls, among which there are delicatessens, artisanal products, traditional delights but also ready-to-eat delicacies, street food, cafés, restaurants, bars and other venues.

Kapani: The city’s large open-air farmers’ market full of butchers, fishmongers, fruit and vegetables sellers.

Bit Bazaar: If you are an antique lover, don’t miss the outdoor Bit Bazaar flea market which started in the 1920s by Greek refugees from Asia Minor.


Thessaloniki International Fair (TIF): Since its foundation in 1926,  TIF is the most important event in the city annually, by means of economic development. It reflects the momentum and trends of domestic and international entrepreneurship bus also hosts and organizes several entertainment events for all ages. TIF attracts major political attention and it is customary for the Prime Minister of Greece to outline his administration’s policies for the next year. It is held every September.

Dimitria festival: Named after the city’s patron saint of St. Demetrius and originating from the most ancient trade fair of the same name, Dimitria is the largest cultural & intellectual festival in Thessaloniki & Northern Greece. It focuses on a wide range of events including music, theatre, dance, local happenings, and exhibitions. It is held in early Autumn.

Thessaloniki International Film Festival (TIFF): Now in its 64th year, the TIFF,  the most important film festival in Greece  attracts world-class film-makers and film lovers to an annual 11-day celebration every November. One of the Balkans’ primary showcases of new and emerging filmmakers.

Thessaloniki Documentary Festival (TDF): Held every March, TDF is a leading force in Southeast Europe. celebrating the art of documentary through a program of multi-awarded films, masterclasses by acclaimed film industry professionals, events and iniciatives.


Church of Saint Demetrius: Built in the 4th century, this is the city’s largest church and the main sanctuary dedicated to its patron saint, Agios Dimitrios. Following the Great Fire of 1917, it took decades to restore the church  which has retained some features that are of incomparable historical and artistic is one of several monuments in Thessaloniki listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Church of Aghia Sofia(The Wisdom of God): One of the oldest churches in the city still standing today with imposing architecture, beautiful wall paintings and elaborate mosaics.  Built as a miniature of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople in the 7th century,  it is part of the Paleochristian and Byzantine Monuments of Thessaloniki that have been listed by UNESCO as World Heritage Sites.

Church of Agios Nikolaos Orfanos: Located in a quiet area behind the Northeast section of the city’s walls. The temple was built at the beginning of the 14th century. The walls are filled with wonderful paintings that will take your breath. Its courtyard is full of olive trees, and cypresses.

Vlatades Monastery (Moni Vlatadon): Located in the Northern part of Ano Poli and built in the 14th century it is one of the oldest and most important Byzantine monuments of Thessaloniki. By the mid-twentieth century the monastery became a meeting place for scholars and academics of the city.

Monastirioton Synagogue (קהל קדוש מונאסטירליס): Built in 1927 in the center of the city, being a testament for the Jewish presence’s history there in the last century, it is fully operating up until today.


Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki: One of the largest museums in Greece, it offers an extremely detailed walk through Macedonian history, housing an extensive collection of golden artwork from the royal palaces of Aigai and Pella, unique treasures.

White Tower: Within the tower runs a museum showcasing Thessaloniki’s history from its foundation up to 1922. On the rooftop, be treated to a 360-degree view of the Thermaic Gulf and the city landscape.

Museum of Byzantine Culture: One of the city’s most famous museums, showcasing the city’s glorious Byzantine past. Icons, ecclesiastical prints, embroidery, books, sculptures.

MoMus: Visit Thessaloniki’s port where the customs and warehouse buildings (built in 1910) are home to the MOMus Photography Museum, the Thessaloniki Cinema Museum and the MOMus Experimental Center for the Arts.

Atatürk Museum: The historic house where Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder of modern-day Turkey, was born, is now part of the Turkish consulate complex,

Jewish Museum of Thessaloniki: Housed in a beautiful 20th-century shopping arcade, which belongs to the Jewish Community of Thessaloniki, the museum is devoted to the history of Sephardic Jews and Jewish life in the city.


1. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki 2.University of Macedonia 3.International Hellenic University 4.Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki


Thessaloniki Airport “Makedonia: An international airport with daily flights from Athens, European capitals.

Port: With a history of 2,300 years, is one of the five Greek ports belonging to the Core Network of the Trans-European Transport Network and a designated Port of International Interest. The Port has ferry connections with the Northeast Aegean, the Cyclades, and the Sporades Islands.